Monday, June 20, 2011

Piston, connecting rod and bearing service

Satisfactory engine performance cannot be obtained unless the piston and connecting-rod assembly are in good condition.
The piston must have correct clearance in the cylinder to avoid piston slap, the compression rings must seal to prevent pressure loss during compression and combustion, the oil ring must control the oil on the cylinder walls, and the piston pin must be the correct fit to prevent noise.
The connecting-rod bearings must not be damaged or worn, and the crank-pin journals must be in good condition to prevent oil loss and noise.

Dismantling the piston assembly
The following are points that relate to dismantling a piston and connecting-rod assembly:
1. Remove the piston rings by winding them out of the grooves in the piston. A thick feeler gauge used under the rings will help.
2. Push the halves of the bearing from the connecting rod and cap. Check for difference between the upper and lower halves. The upper half of the bearing may have an oil hole.
3. Check the piston pin by trying to move the connecting rod in relation to the piston.
4. If the piston is to be removed from the connecting rod, check for markings that identify the front of the piston in relation to the connecting rod.
5. Separate the piston from the connecting rod by removing the piston pin. Depending on the type, the pin may have to be tapped or pressed out.
6. Temporarily install the cap on the connecting rod so that the bearing and all the other parts of the assembly are together.

7. Clean the various parts and check for wear.

·           All parts must be kept to their original cylinders mark or label as necessary.

Removing and replacing piston pins
Fig 7.1
Normally, the piston and connecting rod are only separated if there seems to be looseness between the piston and the rod. To check the fit of the piston pin, hold the piston firmly and try to rock the connecting rod from side to side (Figure 7.1). There should be little or no movement.
If there is obvious movement then the piston pin, the pin holes in the piston, or the bush in the connecting rod (where fitted) will be worn. The piston should be dismantled from the connecting rod so that the parts can be examined.

Fig 7.2
Floating piston pins
Removing and installing a floating piston pin is shown in Figure 7.2. This has circlips that have to be removed from the piston before the piston pin can be removed.
The piston pin can be tapped out, using a light hammer and a punch. The piston must be suitably supported to prevent it from being damaged and the punch should have a pilot that fits into the hollow piston pin.

·   If the piston pin is tight, the piston should be heated before the pin is 

When dismantled, the bush in the small end of the connecting rod should be checked for wear, as well as the piston pin and the pin holes in the piston.
In some cases, a worn bush in the eye of a connecting rod can be replaced by pressing out the old bush and pressing in a new one. Figure 7.3 shows this operation for a connecting rod of a diesel engine. This is a rugged connecting rod with a relatively thick bush. The eye of the rod must be supported and a suitable pressing tool used. The bush has
Fig 7.3
an oil hole that must be aligned with the hole in the rod.
Before installing the piston pin, the piston should be heated so that the pin can be installed without damage. New circlips should be used.

Figure 7.2 Floating piston pin
(a) the circlips are removed with a small
screwdriver (b) the piston pin is installed to a heated piston (c) new circlips are fitted

Press-fit piston pins
A pressing tool and a supporting tool are needed when removing or installing piston pins that are a press fit.
This type of pin is free to move in the piston bosses, but is a press fit in the small end of the connecting rod.
Figure 7.4 shows how the piston is being supported while the piston pin is being pressed out of the connecting rod. The pin must not be driven out. Before removing a piston pin, note its exact position in the connecting rod so that it can be replaced in the same position.
Fig 7.4
Press-fit piston pins have an interference fit of about 0.02 mm in the eye of the connecting rod. When
a pin is to be installed, the eye of the rod can be heated carefully on a hotplate so that the piston pin can be easily fitted.
The pressing tool and support arc used to press the pin back into the connecting rod. This must be done quickly so that the pin is in its correct position before the connecting rod cools and contracts.

Heating the piston or rod
To heat the piston, place it in a container of water and heat the water to almost boiling point (Figure 7.5). This will expand the piston and make the piston pin easier to remove. This can be done before dismantling and also before reassembling.
Fig 7.5
An alternative method, only for press-fit piston pins, is to carefully heat the end of the connecting rod on a hotplate. This will expand the eye of the connecting rod and allow the piston pin to be fitted.

·   Direct flame should not he applied to a connecting rod.

Piston-pin fit
A piston pin that is fitted too tightly could cause distortion, while a pin that is too loose could cause a knock.
Engine manufacturers specify clearances, such as 0.002—0.008 mm between the piston pin and the piston, with a wear limit of 0.02 mm. These are very small clearances. The small clearances are possible by having the piston pin a selective fit in the piston. The piston pin and the hole in the piston have extremely fine surface-finishes and this reduces wear.

Types of piston pins fit
Fig 7.6
During manufacture of parts, special gauges are used and these are capable of measuring to an accuracy of 0.0002 mm. In service workshops, where clearances have to be checked, such accuracy is not needed and micrometers, calipers and dial gauges are used.
There are also ways of describing the fits between parts — three descriptions of the fit of piston pins are illustrated in Figure 7.6. In order of tightness, these are
hand-push fit, thumb-push fit and finger-push fit. There are other descriptions that can be used, such as tap fit, light-tap fit and drive fit.

·      While these fits are not measurements, they are useful as workshop

See piston measurements and clearance>>>>>>

1 comment:

  1. Good tip, so this method allows you to see when the new grease is starting to ooze across the top of the bearing? babbit bearings